NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 1 FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIEN

NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 1 FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES School of NURSING, MIDWIFERY & PARAMEDICINE MacKillop Campus SEMESTER 1 2014 NRSG 210: Mental Health Nursing UNIT OUTLINE Credit points: 10 Prerequisites : Foundation Year Units or equivalent Co-requisites: NIL It is your responsibility as a student to ensure that you have the prerequisites or co-requisites for a particular unit. You may not enrol in this unit if you have previously passed, or are currently enrolled in, any unit identified as incompatible with this unit. If you do not meet these requirements, then you must see your Course Coordinator. Lecturer in Charge (National): Sandra Hyde Office location: EB. 19 Email: Telephone: 07 3623 7613 Contact me: Please contact me via email or telephone. Description: This unit develops students’ knowledge of the physical, mental and biopsychosocial factors that contribute to personal, individual, family and community mental health. It also examines the role of the nurse and the health team in caring for persons who have alterations to their emotional and mental wellbeing across the lifespan. In particular, it will enable the student to develop a holistic and consumer-oriented recovery approach to the provision of nursing care highlighting the therapeutic use of self, including ethical, legal and professional boundaries that influence practice. Teaching team: Lecturer in Charge: Dr. Sue Webster Office location: Level 7, Barry St, 97392387 Email: Susan Gallagher Marie Greenall Level 7, 33 Berry St, 97392323 Level 7, 33 Berry St, NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 2 Dr. Peter Brown Level 7, 33 Berry St, Mode/attendance pattern: This unit will consist of lecture resource sessions and seminars framed within an inquiry based learning paradigm. In addition, the unit will be enhanced with web based resources and self-directed learning activities. Attendance at all seminars is encouraged and a minimum of 80 % is required in order to pass this unit. Duration: 10 week-semester or equivalent in intensive block mode. You should anticipate undertaking 150 hours of study for this unit, including class attendance, readings and assignment preparation. LEARNING OUTCOMES The Bachelor of Nursing course is a professional program that requires development of particular attributes for accreditation purposes. These are also included in the Learning Outcomes. On successful completion of this unit, you should be able to: 1. Outline social, developmental and cultural factors that impact on mental health and wellness; 2. Discuss major mental health priorities and related strategies, including models of mental health care; 3. Reflect critically on the experiences of mental illness from consumer and carer perspectives; (GA 4) 4. Assess a person’s mental health status within the contexts of an holistic health assessment and potential underlying pathology; 5. Determine appropriate evidence-based nursing interventions and describe medical and allied health interventions for the promotion of mental health, and prevention, early intervention, management of and recovery from common mental illnesses; 6. Plan, implement and evaluate safe, holistic, person-centred nursing care taking account of a person’s / family’s mental health status, strengths, risks and resilience; 7. Explain strategies for developing and evaluating therapeutic relationships with mental health consumers, carers and significant others across the lifespan; (GA 9) 8. Discuss legal and ethical issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness ( GA 3) 9. Work effectively in a group to identify and address your learning needs. (GA 7) NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 3 GRADUATE ATTRIBUTES Each unit in your course contributes in some way to the development of the ACU Graduate Attributes which you should demonstrate by the time you complete your course. You can view the ACU Graduate Attributes for all courses at All Australian universities have their expected Graduate Attributes – ACU’s Graduate Attributes have a greater emphasis on ethical behaviour and community responsibility than those of many other universities. All of your units will enable you to develop some attributes. On successful completion of this unit, you should have developed your ability to: GA3 GA4 think critically and reflectively GA7 work both autonomously and collaboratively GA9 demonstrate effective communication in oral and written English language and visual media Australian Nurses’ and Midwifery Council Competency Standards for the Registered Nurse developed in this unit are: ANMC Competency Standards Learning Outcomes: Professional Practice 1, 2, 3, 8, Critical Thinking and Analysis 5, 9 Provision and Coordination of Care 7.2, 8.1, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 Collaborative and Therapeutic Practice 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 10.1, 10.2, 10.4 3, 7, CONTENT Topics will include: Factors impacting on mental health and wellness • Social • Developmental • Cultural, including Australia’s Indigenous population Family risk factors • Domestic violence • Sexual abuse • Emotional and physical neglect Mental health priorities • National and international mental health priorities and strategies NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 4 • State mental health priorities and strategies including Suicide Prevention • Mental health workforce priorities • Vulnerable populations • Refugees • Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) • Homeless • Forensic • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples • Elderly Models of mental health care and care continuum • Medical model • Psychodynamic approach • Developmental models of self • Resilience and recovery model Therapeutic interventions • Psycho education and cognitive therapies Experiences of people with mental illness • Discrimination, stereotyping and perpetuation of stigma • Factors influencing attitudes • Affirmative action • Social inclusion Mental health consumer and carer participation in care and recovery • Consumer’ and carers’ perspectives on mental illness • Consumer choice, informed consent and participation in care • Spiritual care; sense of wellbeing Nursing interventions and principles in the care of mentally ill • Managing suicide and self-harm • Managing physical aggression • Managing fear and anxiety • Cognitive behavioural intervention • Psychosocial intervention Prevention and early intervention • Risk and preventative factors across the lifespan • Risk factors for self-harm • Preventive model of care Mental health promotion • Myths of mental illness NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 5 • Developing self-awareness • Public and professional education Establishing therapeutic relationships with mental health consumers and carers • Self-help, peer support and consumer delivered services • Collaboration with consumers, their families and community Mental health assessment • Factors affecting assessment • Taking a psychosocial history • Mental state assessment • Assessment tools • The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) instrument • Functional assessment • Mental Health Outcomes Assessment Tool (MH-OAT) • Alcohol scales • Depression scales Common mental health alterations and disorders and related pathophysiology • Disorders in children and adolescents • Disorders affecting the elderly • Schizophrenic disorders • Mood disorders • Personality disorders • Anxiety disorders • Eating disorders • Substance-related disorders and dual diagnosis • Somatoform and dissociative disorders Psychopharmacology for common mental illnesses/disorders • Psychopharmacology • Principles of pharmacological action of psychotropic medication • Legal issues with psychotropic medications • Major groups of psychotropic drugs • Medication adherence issues and strategies Legal, professional and ethical issues • Rights of the mentally ill • Mental health policy • Mental health legislation • Professional boundaries Content Extended • Theories of self, personality, resilience, crisis, stress, coping NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 6 • Lifespan development • Family development, assessment, functions • Cultural diversity • Social constructions of health and illness • Vulnerable populations Content Integrated and Consolidated • Person-centred care • Cultural safety • Health assessment • Communication skills and active listening • Documentation • Group dynamics QUALITY ASSURANCE AND STUDENT FEEDBACK This unit has been evaluated through the ‘Student Evaluation of Unit’ (SEU) online surveys. SEU surveys are usually conducted at the end of the teaching period. Your practical and constructive feedback is valuable to improve the quality of the unit. Please ensure you complete the SEU survey for the unit. You can also provide feedback at other times to the unit lecturers, course coordinators and/or through student representatives. SCHEDULE Please ensure that you choose your classes carefully in Tutorial Direct and attend the chosen classes Attendance requirements of unit Attendance at all lectures and tutorials is expected. An attendance record of all tutorial classes will be recorded and a minimum of 80% of tutorial classes is mandatory. Reasons why attendance is required In tutorials, you will be interacting with other students and developing skills which you will use in your professional/clinical experience. Students who attend less than 80% of tutorials are at risk of not developing these essential skills. Therefore, it is a requirement you attend a minimum of 80% of tutorial classes. Procedures to follow should a student fail to attend 80% of classes due to illness and/or personal circumstances beyond their control 1. You must contact your Lecturer-in-Charge when you know you have breached the 80% minimum requirement for tutorials. 2. You must also provide written evidence of why you were unable to attend (sick certificate, letter from a health professional on letterhead or a Statutory Declaration) to the Lecturer-in-Charge (LIC). 3. Your Lecturer-in-Charge will then provide you with a written learning activity which you will be required to submit on a specified date prior to the commencement of exam week. Consequence for not meeting 80% attendance requirements of unit NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 7 1. Failure to provide written evidence of the reason for your non-attendance and/or failure to submit the written learning activity by the due date will result in a Fail grade for this unit. 2. Non-attendance of more than 40% of all tutorial sessions (even with documentary evidence) will result in a Fail grade for the unit. In such instances you are advised to apply for “RE Re-credit of Student Learning Entitlement (SLE) and Refund of Fees in Special Circumstances” Study schedule For the most up-to-date information, please check your LEO unit and also note advice from your lecturing and tutoring staff for changes to this schedule. Conduct in Tutorial inquiry based learning (IBL) sessions Students are expected to attend seminars having undertaken the recommended readings and prepared for the IBL learning activities, in preparation for active participation. Professional behaviour is expected. You are required to attend 80% of the seminar classes and complete and submit each of the assessment tasks according to the established criteria (see attachments) and achieve a grade of 50% and above in the unit and a minimum pass (20 out of 40%) in the final examination. Week Starting LECTURE /RESOURCE SESSION 2 HOURs IBL SEMINAR/ TUTORIAL 2 HOURS SELF DIRECTED LEARNING Available on the NRSG 210 LEO site 1 HOUR 1 24/02/201 4 Introduction to Recovery in mental health Introduction to IBL group rules and expectations. Exploring Mental Illness Self-directed learning week 1 =_FolgAZ3YuU My recovery story 2 03/03/201 4 Principles of service delivery Mental health – legal & Ethical Issues Screening for a mental illness Group allocation for Assessment Task 2- Group Presentation Self-directed learning week 2 Effective communication & paternalism in mental health “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” 3 10/03/201 4 Nursing Assessment MSE & Risk Management Assessment Written communication 1st Group Presentation Self-directed learning week 3 NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 8 commence 4 17/03/201 4 Psychosis (includes DSM V & ICD 10) Psychosis Group Presentation commence Self-directed learning week 4 Schizophrenia & insight – “A Beautiful Mind” 5 24/03/201 4 Affective disorders (Major depression/ postnatal depression/ bipolar I & II) Affective disorders Mania Depression Post natal depression Assessment Task 1 Due : 28.3.2014 Self-directed learning week 5 Schizoaffective disorder & carers – “Shine” Essay due at 4 pm 21/04/2014 UA Week Recess 6 28/04/201 3 Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Self-directed learning week 6 7 05/05/201 4 Personality disorders Managing difficult personalities Self-directed learning week 7 Depression & self-harming behaviours – “Ordinary People” 8 12/05/201 4 Co-occurring mental illness & drug and alcohol disorders Co-occurring mental illness & drug and alcohol disorders Screening tools Self-directed learning week 8 Delirium tremens & carers– “The Lost Weekend” NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 9 9 19/05/201 4 Child and Youth Mental Health Mental health and body image Working with families Group dynamics and group function Self-directed learning week 9 10 26/05/201 4 Older Adults Mental Older adults Self-directed learning week 10 ASSESSMENT In order to pass this unit, you are required to you are required to attend 80% of the seminar classes and complete and submit each of the assessment tasks according to the established criteria (see attachments) and achieve a grade of 50% and above in the unit and a minimum pass (20 out of 40%) in the final examination. The assessment tasks for this unit are designed for you to demonstrate your achievement of each learning outcome. Assessment tasks Due date Weighting (%) Learning outcome/s assessed Graduate Attributes assessed Essay – (1500 words) Friday March 28 by 4pm 40% 2,4,5 and 6 3, 4, 9 Group work presentation Weeks 3-10 20% 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 3, 4, 7, 9 Examination (1.5 hours) Exam Period 40% 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 3, 4, ,9 Assignment 1 Essay Three newspaper articles relating to mental health have been placed on LEO in preparation for this assignment. Each student is to provide an essay based on one of these articles highlighting the key issues within the selected article. For example, if an article discusses suicide, you might need to highlight an issue such as family involvement. The discussion is to be supported with relevant and appropriate references. There are to be a minimum of ten references (includes the article), at least two (2) being researched based journal articles. No Wikipedia and only two (2) web based sites. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 10 Due date: Friday 28th March, 2014 at 4 pm. Weighting: 40% Length and/or format: 1500 words Purpose: This assessment aims to enhance students learning related to contemporary mental health issues including reasoning, critical thinking, reflection and care planning. The essay will provide an opportunity for students to be analytical and synthesize information within the expectations of academic writing. Learning outcomes assessed: The learning outcomes assessed in this assignment are 2, 4, 5, and 6. How to submit: This essay for NRSG 210 will be submitted electronically via LEO to get your Turnitin originality report and then in hard copy. Please submit your assignment in the marked assignment box in GB.13/GB.14 (entry to Nursing Laboratories in G Block). You must complete and attach: • The ACU assignment cover sheet. Students need to attach an ACU Coversheet to the assignment ensuring they have signed the statement that the work is original. The current ACU Assignment Cover Sheet is downloadable from • Your LEAP certificate • The marking guide for this assessment (pages 16-17 of this outline) • Your Turnitin originality report Return of assignment: Assignments will usually be returned in class. Assignments not collected during class may be collected from the LIC. Assessment criteria: The assignment will be marked based on the assessment criteria document on pages 17-18 of this unit outline. Turnitin The ‘Turnitin’ application (a text-matching tool) will be used in this unit, in order to enable students and staff to identify possible areas of poor citation and referencing. You can only submit to Turnitin twice – once to check your work and one final submission. A Turnitin originality report will automatically be made available for the online submission; this must be printed out and submitted with the hard copy of your written work. You should submit your draft to Turnitin well in advance of the due date to ensure that you get your Turnitin originality report and have time to work on any issues identified by Turnitin. It could be a few days before you receive your final originality report. ASSESSMENT 2: Group Presentation Topic: Identify the mental health nursing considerations, as well as those of the consumer associated with the topic you have been allocated. You will be allocated into small groups (max 6) in week 2 to complete this assessment. Each group will be allocated a tutorial topic to research and present to the class. Your group will include one question to pose to the class to towards the end of the presentation to facilitate a discussion. Students are expected to work equally and collaboratively to complete the assessment task. When you sign the group work cover sheet you agree that this has occurred. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 11 As a group you will: Access the case scenario via LEO prior to the tutorial and identify the mental health nursing and consumer implications related to topic. Provide and present brief a contextual summary as to why the topic you have been allocated is important. Create one question to involve the class in a discussion of no more than 5 minutes. Close the tutorial with a 2 power point presentation of the issues your group identified in the literature. You must support your presentation with recent, relevant academic sources and submit your prepared slides and a group reference list. You must complete and attach the ACU assignment cover sheet (with a signed declaration of originality) from all members of the group. The marking guide for this assessment is located at the end of this unit outline. Due date: Tutorial weeks 3-10 Weighting: 20% Length and/or format: 10 minute presentation per group plus 5 mins discussion time (total 15 minutes) Purpose: To provide students with the opportunity to work collaboratively and autonomously to explore theoretical concepts Learning outcomes assessed: The learning outcomes covered by this assessment are 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 How to submit: Students will email a copy of their group presentation to their tutor min 24 hours before the tutorial. • Declaration of Originality signed by all group members available from Return of assignment: N/A Assessment criteria: The marking criteria for this assessment is found at the end of this unit outline Return of assignment: Results and feedback in class at the end of the semester Assessment Task 3 Examination A written exam will be undertaken during central examination period. This one and a half (1.5) hour examination is designed to give summative feedback to students’ on their knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to mental health. Material covered in resource sessions, tutorials and readings will provide the knowledge base for this assessment. This examination will consist of a combination of short answer and multiple choice questions. Weighting: 40% Due Date: During scheduled examination weeks Length and format: One and a half hour (1.5) examination including multiple choice questions and short answer questions. Purpose: This examination is designed to give summative feedback to students’ on NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 12 their knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to mental health Learning outcomes Assessed: The learning outcomes assessed in this examination are 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. REFERENCING This unit requires you to use the APA referencing system. See the ‘Academic referencing’ page from the Office of Student Success ( for more details. ACU POLICIES AND REGULATIONS It is your responsibility to read and familiarise yourself with ACU policies and regulations, including regulations on examinations; review and appeals; acceptable use of IT facilities; and conduct and responsibilities. These are in the ACU Handbook, which is available in the Library or on the ACU website at The Unit Outline Resources page ( is a good starting point. Assessment Policy and Procedures You must read the Assessment Policy and Assessment Procedures in the University Handbook: they include rules on deadlines; penalties for late submission; extensions; and special consideration ( If you have any queries on Assessment Policy, please see your Lecturer in Charge. Grading Descriptors for the unit are detailed in section 7 of the Academic Regulations (available at Academic integrity You have the responsibility to submit only work which is your own, or which properly acknowledges the thoughts, ideas, findings and/or work of others. The Framework for Academic Integrity and the Academic Honesty Policy are available at Please read them, and note in particular that plagiarism, collusion and recycling of assignments are not acceptable. Penalties for academic dishonesty can vary in severity, and can include being excluded from the course. Turnitin The ‘Turnitin’ application (a text-matching tool) will be used in this unit, in order to enable: • students to improve their academic writing by identifying possible areas of poor citation and referencing in their written work; and • teaching staff to identify areas of possible plagiarism in students’ written work. While Turnitin can help in identifying problems with plagiarism, avoiding plagiarism is more important. Information on avoiding plagiarism is available at For any assignment that has been created to allow submission through Turnitin (check the Assignment submission details for each assessment task), you should submit your draft well in advance of the due date (ideally, several days before) to ensure that you have time to work on any issues identified by Turnitin. On the assignment due date, lecturers will have access to your final submission, and the Turnitin Originality Report. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 13 STUDENT SUPPORT If you are experiencing difficulties with learning, life issues or pastoral/spiritual concerns, or have a disability/medical condition which may impact on your studies, you are advised to notify your Lecturer in Charge, Course Coordinator and/or one of the services listed below as soon as possible. For all aspects of support please contact the Office of Student Success. • Academic Skills offers a variety of services, including workshops (on topics such as assignment writing, time management, reading strategies, referencing), drop-in sessions, group appointments and individual consultations. It has a 24-hour online booking system for individual or group consultations. • Campus Ministry offers pastoral care, spiritual leadership and opportunities for you to be involved with community projects. • The Career Development Service can assist you with finding employment, preparing a resume and employment application and preparing for interviews. • The Counselling Service is a free, voluntary, confidential and non-judgmental service open to all students and staffed by qualified social workers or registered psychologists. • Equity and Disability can assist you if you need educational adjustments because of a disability or chronic medical condition; please contact them as early as possible. • Indigenous Units on each campus provide information and support for students. The Unit Outline Resources web page ( provides links for each service. ONLINE RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS The LEO page for this unit contains further readings/ discussion forums. In addition, for this unit you will be required to use the following technologies: Please note any additional technologies, such as ePortfolio, microphones or cameras, which students will or may use in the unit, and how they can be accessed TEXTS AND REFERENCES: Required text(s) Evans, J., & Brown, P. (2012). Videbeck’s Mental Health Nursing. Sydney: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Recommended references Adams,M., & Urban, C. (2013). Pharmacology connections to nursing practice. (2nd ed) Boston: Pearson. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2009). Measuring the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cat. No. IHW24. Canberra; AIHW. Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain (3rd ed.). Baltimore, Md. :Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Caltabiano, M., Byrne, D., & Sarafino, E. (2008). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. An Australian perspective. Brisbane: Wiley & Sons Australia Eckermann, A-K., Dowd, T., Chong, E., Nixon, L., Gray, R., & Johnson, S. (2010). Binan goonj: Bridging cultures in Aboriginal health (3nd ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Churchill/Livingstone. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 14 Elder, R., Evans, K., & Nizette, D. (2013). Psychiatric and mental health nursing (3nd ed.). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Happell, B., Cowin, L., Roper, C. & Lakeman, R. & Cox, L. (2013). Introducing mental health nursing: a service user-orientated approach (2nd Ed). Crow’s Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. Ivey,A., Ivey, M. & Zalaquett, C. with Quirk, K., (2012) Essentials of intentional interviewing: Counselling in a multicultural world (2nd ed). Belmont, USA:Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. Jones, K., & Creedy, D. (2008). Health and human behaviour (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press. Leahy, R. (2012) (Ed). Treatment plans and interventions for depression and anxiety disorders (2nd ed). New York; London: Guilford Press Martin, C. (Ed) (2012). Perinatal mental health: A clinical guide. Retrieved from Meadows, G., Grigg, M., Farhall J., McDermott F., Fossey E., & Singh, B (2012). Mental Health in Australia. Collaborative Community Practice (3 rd ed). South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press. O’Toole, G. (2008). Communication: Core interpersonal skills for health professionals. Chatswood, N.S.W. :Churchill Livingstone. Paris, J. (2013) The intelligent clinician’s guide to the DSM-V. New York: Oxford Press. Retrieved from Pink, B., & Allbon, P. (2008). The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. ABS Catalogue No. 4704.0. AIHW Catalogue No. IHW 21. Belconnen, ACT: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Rana, D. & Upton, D. (2009). Psychology for nurses. Harlow, England: Pearson Education. Staunton, P., & Chiarella, M. (2008). Nursing and the law (6th ed.). Sydney: Churchill Livingstone. Stein-Parbury, J. (2009). Patient and person: Interpersonal skills in nursing (4th ed.). Sydney: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Taylor, B. (2010). Reflective practice: A guide for health care professionals: A practical guide (3rd ed.). Maidenhead New York: Open University Press. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 15 Usher, K., Foster, K., & Bullock, S. (2009). Psychopharmacology for health professionals. Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier Australia. NRSG210 Mental Health Nursing 201430 16 NRSG210 – Task 1 Essay Marking Guide Student Name: __________________________________________ Student ID: ___________________________________________ Weight: 40% HD- (85-100%) D- (75-84%) C – (65-74%) P- (50-64%) Unsatisfactory Introduction and Focus The introductory paragraph provides a preamble, clearly states the essay topic and provides a clear statement of how the argument will be organized.(8.5-10) The introductory paragraph provides a preamble, states the essay topic and provides a statement of how the argument will be organized. Some of the above is not clear though.(7.5-8) The introductory paragraph outlines only some of the main points to be discussed or does not clearly state the topic. Argument not clear.(6.5- 7) The introductory paragraph does not name the topic AND does not preview what will be discussed (5-6) The introductory paragraph is unclear or absent. (0-4.5) 10 Evidence and Examples The discussion is focused on the topic with ample evidence from the literature. The literature is critiqued. (21.5-25) The discussion refers often to the topic and with adequate evidence from the literature. There is appraisal of the literature(19-21) The discussion refers to the topic but with limited evidence from the literature. There is appraisal of the literature. . (16-18.5) The discussion does not clearly refer to the topic. There is limited supporting literature. (12.5 -15.5) There is no topic focus and there are limited or no suitable references. (0-12) 25 Sequencing and accuracy The argument is presented in a logical order that shows clear expression of ideas. All supporting facts and statistics are reported accurately. (21.5-25) The argument is presented in a logical order that shows expression of ideas. Most supporting facts and statistics are reported accurately (19-21) The argument is presented in a fairly logical order and shows clear expression of most ideas. Some supporting facts and statistics are reported accurately (16- 18.5) A few of the support details or aspects of the arguments are not in an expected or logical order, sometimes making the argument confusing. (12.5-15.5) Many of the details or aspects of the argument are not in a logical order, distracting the reader and making the argument very confusing (0-12). 25 Closing paragraph The conclusion clearly shows how all ideas are connected. It begins with a strong effective restatement of the argument and finishes with the main point of the essay. There are no new concepts introduced. (8.5-10) The conclusion shows how most of the ideas are connected. It begins with a restatement of the argument and finishes with the main point of the essay. There are no new concepts introduced. (7.5-8) The conclusion shows how some ideas are connected. It begins with a restatement of the argument and finishes with the main point of the essay. There are no new concepts introduced. (6.5-7) The conclusion shows how a few of the ideas are connected. It

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